I am Ambassador Melanne Verveer. Gender equality is both the right thing to do and the smart thing. Every woman and girl deserves to be respected and to have her rights protected, including access to health and education and the right to be free from violence. All around the world, I have met many inspiring advocates who are on the frontlines working to prevent HIV infection, providing treatment and care, addressing gender inequality and making a profound difference. Gathering together as a global community of diverse stakeholders — including academics, practitioners, civil society, policymakers, multilaterals, journalists, youth, private sector corporations, and people living with HIV — we must highlight the critical role of women, girls and gender equality in turning back the tide on HIV. Women and girls bear a disproportionate burden of ill health. Gender-based violence, for example, itself is a global epidemic. Studies indicate that women who have experienced violence may be up to three times more likely to contract HIV than those who have not.
The Story Behind It
The practical feasibility of using prostate specific antigen PSA as a biomarker of semen exposure was examined among HIV-infected Ugandan women. Trained laboratory technicians processed samples on-site and positive PSA tests were compared to self-reported unprotected vaginal sex UVS in the last 48 h. A total of 77 women submitted samples for PSA testing at up to three study visits. There were no reported difficulties with specimen collection, storage, or processing. HIV prevention research often relies on self-report to determine the efficacy of behavioral and biomedical treatments on study outcomes such condom use and adherence to antiretroviral therapy ART. Of the hundreds of published studies on behavioral interventions targeting condom use, there is a near universal reliance on self-report [ 1 ], which has significant repercussions for the field. As such, an exclusive reliance on self-report can lead to misclassification, masked intervention effects, and ambiguity in the interpretation of study findings [ 2 ]. Though HIV medication adherence research routinely employs well-validated methods for objectively supplementing self-report e. Biomarkers of semen exposure allow for the comparison of self-reported condom use to a biological reference standard. Candidate biomarkers for semen exposure fall into two broad categories and include constituents of seminal plasma e.
Diplomacy in Action
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Neon Genesis Evangelion is among the most critically acclaimed anime ever produced. Every facet of its writing and animation has been broken down and cataloged by fans, as has every interview and commentary surrounding the series. On top of that, fans hungry for more content are eager to experience anything even tangentially connected to Evangelion , be it manga, art books, parodies or theme park rides. Spencer was commissioned to work on the project, asked Grant to join him and then the two recorded their lines together. However, because the sex noises were "too realistic," the PSA never aired. The only copy was given to Grant on tape, which she lost somewhere in her house. Grant had by this time found the tape during a move, went to digitize the audio, and then gave the audio to Bard to post online.